Collar Bone Fracture

The collar bone, or clavicle, is located across the upper part of the chest, extending from the breast bone (sternum) to the shoulder blade (scapula). It is easy to feel the clavicle as there are no overlying muscles, just skin. The clavicle is a common site to fracture, especially in the middle third of the… Read more »

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the Shoulder

OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA) OF THE SHOULDER In the absence of previous trauma, osteoarthritis in the shoulder predominantly occurs in the acromioclavicular joint rather than the glenohumeral joint. Similar to any other joint in the body, osteoarthritis in the acromioclavicular joint occurs secondary to either overuse of the joint or as a consequence of previous trauma, such… Read more »

Biceps Rupture

BICEPS RUPTURE The biceps brachii muscle can rupture either as a consequence of direct trauma or secondary to overuse. Often in the case of overuse, the tendon involved may already exhibit characteristics of a tendinopathy/tendinosis. To complicate matters further, this already weakened tendon may not necessarily be symptomatic prior to the development of a tear. In this… Read more »

Dislocated Shoulder (Glenohumeral Joint)

DISLOCATED SHOULDER (GLENOHUMERAL JOINT) The glenohumeral (GH) joint is the largest and most obvious joint in the shoulder complex. It is described as a “ball-and-socket” joint and consists of an articulation between the glenoid fossa of shoulder blade (which forms the socket) and the head of the humerus (which forms the ball).     One of… Read more »

Glenoid Labrum Tear

GLENOID LABRUM TEAR The glenohumeral (GH) joint is the largest and most obvious joint in the shoulder complex. It is described as a “ball-and-socket” joint and consists of an articulation between the glenoid fossa of the shoulder blade (which forms the socket) and the head of the humerus (which forms the ball). One of the… Read more »

Acromioclavicular (AC) Sprain / Separation

ACROMIOCLAVICULAR (AC) SPRAIN / SEPARATION   The acromioclavicular joint (AC) is found on the top of the shoulder and is located between the collar bone and part of the shoulder blade defined as the acromion. Through this articulation, the collar bone can act as a strut, maintaining the upper limb away from the thoracic cage… Read more »

Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)

ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS (FROZEN SHOULDER) Frozen shoulder is medically termed Adhesive Capsulitis and is a condition which affects the capsule around the glenohumeral joint, whereby the capsule becomes inflamed, swollen and contracted. As a consequence, the normal elasticity of the capsule is replaced by pain and stiffness. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is largely unknown. This condition… Read more »

Subacromial Bursitis

SUBACROMIAL BURSITIS   The subacromial bursa is a fluid filled sac, which is located under the acromion, and functions to decrease friction between the rotator cuff and coracoacromial arch.   Bursae are found in many locations within the body such as the knee and hip and like any soft tissue, can become injured. In the case… Read more »

Rotator Cuff Tears

ROTATOR CUFF TEARS Rotator cuff tears can occur as a consequence of either direct trauma or secondary to overuse. Often in the case of overuse, the tendon involved may already exhibit characteristics of a tendinopathy/tendinosis. To complicate matters further, this already weakened tendon may not necessarily be symptomatic prior to the development of a tear…. Read more »

Bicipital Tendinopathy

BICEPS TENDINOPATHY The biceps brachii muscle is located in the upper arm and is composed of a long and a short head. The long head crosses both the shoulder joint (see below) and the elbow joint, whereas the smaller short head crosses only the elbow joint. The long head originates on the supraglenoid tubercle of… Read more »

Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy

ROTATOR CUFF TENDINOPATHY To understand the injuries that can occur to tendons of the shoulder, a brief understanding of normal tendon structure is required. A tendon is a tough band off fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone. In response to physical training, the metabolism in tendons changes and, as such, the tendon will adapt… Read more »

Impingement Syndrome

SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME The rotator cuff muscles are susceptible to cumulative/overuse injury. One of the leading causes of cumulative injury is poor posture and muscular imbalances, which disrupt the normal biomechanics of the shoulder, leading to alteration in the position of the humerus within the shoulder blade during arm movements. The main rotator cuff muscle,… Read more »