Popliteus Muscle Strain

POPLITEUS STRAIN The popliteus is a muscle which is located at the back of the knee. It originates from the outer part of the lower aspect of the femur and inserts on the inner tibia. The action of popliteus is to ‘unlock’ the extended knee by rotating the femur outwards (laterally) on the fixed tibia… Read more »

Synovial Cyst (Baker’s Cyst)

BAKER’S CYST A Baker’s cyst is a benign synovial swelling which was initially named by William Morrant Baker in the 19th Century. There are two types of Baker’s cyst, namely primary and secondary cysts, which are explained below: Located at the back of the knee, between the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle and one… Read more »

Iliotibial Band (ITB) Syndrome

ILIOTIBIAL BAND (ITB) FRICTION SYNDROME   Fascia is a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue which extends uninterrupted from our head to the tips of our toes. It surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels and nerves, binding some structures together, while permitting others to slide smoothly over each other. Various kinds of fascia… Read more »

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Sprain

LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (LCL) SPRAIN The lateral collateral ligaments are located on the outside part of the knee between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The LCL resists various stresses (forces pushing the inside of the knee outwards or forces pushing the lower end of the shin bone and foot inwards). It’s… Read more »


BURSITIS/TENDINITIS There are three muscles which cross the medial (inside) joint line of the knee. These are one of the hamstring muscles (semitendinosus) and two of the long hip adductor muscles (gracilis and sartorius). They insert inside of the shin bone and form what is known as the pes anserinus, due to its resemblance to… Read more »

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Sprain

MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (MCL) STRAIN The medial collateral ligaments are the most common ligaments to be sprained in the knee. They are found in the inside part of the knee between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The MCL works predominantly with the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to resist valgus stress (forces… Read more »

Patella Tendinopathy

Patella Tendinopathy The patella (knee cap) is essentially a floating bone. It transfers the force of the largest and strongest muscle grouping, the quadriceps (front of thigh), into the lower leg. In activities such as jumping, the quadriceps act to straighten the knee to propel the individual off the ground, as well as functioning in… Read more »


MEDIAL SYNOVIAL PLICA IRRITATION A plica is a fold in the lining of the joint (joint capsule). It’s not known why they exist, but they are normal and are considered a remnant embryological structure. There are four in total: medial patella; lateral patella; infrapatella, and suprapatella. The most problematic is the medial patella plica. There… Read more »

Tibial Stress Fracture

TIBIAL STRESS FRACTURE     The tibia is the largest of the two leg bones and is located on the inner part of the leg relative to the lateral fibula, which is the smaller bone located laterally. The tibia is prone to stress/fatigue fractures in patients who perform sports such as long-distance running, whereby repetitive… Read more »

Knee Osteoarthritis / Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)

KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS The knee consist of three separate joint articulations (superior tibiofibular, patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints) and any one of these can be prone to wear-and-tear (osteoarthritis).   So what actually happens? The early stages of the degeneration process are thought to occur when an abnormal force or the cumulative effects of a sustained faulty posture,… Read more »

Patellafemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

PATELLAFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME The patella (knee cap) is essentially a floating bone. It transfers the force of the largest and strongest muscle grouping, the quadriceps (front of thigh), into the lower leg. The quadricep muscles are utilised in movements involving straightening the leg, such as getting out of a chair and going upstairs. They also… Read more »

Cartilage/Meniscus Tear

CARTILAGE/MENISCUS TEAR   There are two meniscii in the knee, known as lateral and medial. The meniscii are roughly c-shaped and made up of very tough fibrocartilage. They are positioned between the tibia (shin bone) and femur (thigh bone) on the outer aspect of the joints. The meniscii perform the following important functions in the… Read more »

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tear

ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT (ACL) RUPTURE The ACL is a very important ligament which is positioned deep inside the knee. It crosses the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to form a crucifix, hence the name “Cruciate”.     The ACL runs from the front of the tibia (shin bone) to the back of the femur (thigh bone),… Read more »