Plantar Fasciitis and Footwear

Plantar Fasciitis: Footwear for the Summer Season. This Year’s Best Looks! Could plantar fasciitis ruin your summer? We have all been there, done that and picked fashion over comfort in shoes repeatedly. Knowingly putting them on, whilst simultaneously thinking about the pain we will be in later. I know I definitely have, because I have… Read more »

Tibialis Posterior Tendinopathy

Tibialis Posterior Injuries The tibialis posterior is a key stabilising muscle in the lower leg and has the main role of supporting the medial arch of the foot. It originates from the medial border of the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg. It then sweeps behind the medial ankle bone and attaches to… Read more »

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome

The tibialis anterior is an important muscle in the lower half of the shin and foot which helps to control foot motion. It attaches half way down on the lateral side of the shin then sweeps over the front of the ankle to attach to a bone on the medial part of the mid-foot and… Read more »

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fascia Fascia is a strong film of connective tissue that enwraps your whole body, tightly holding your muscle together in groups, and then connects it to your skin. Plantar fascia refers to the fascia on the sole of your foot. Fasciitis is inflammation of that fascia. Strong forces go through the foot with each weight-bearing… Read more »

Achilles Tendinopathy

Achilles The Achilles is the strong tendon on the back of the ankle that connects the calf to the heel bone. As a tendon, it is made of strong connective tissue to attach the muscle to the bone efficiently. Strong tensile forces are projected through the tendon as the calf contracts and relaxes to give… Read more »

Ankle Sprains

Ankle Sprains The foot has many ligaments that support the ankle during weight-bearing activities. They attach to the many bones in the foot together to create stability. It is possible to sprain the medial (inside) or lateral (outside) ligaments, depending on the mechanism of injury. However, lateral sprains are more common, which can occur in… Read more »

Collar Bone Fracture

The collar bone, or clavicle, is located across the upper part of the chest, extending from the breast bone (sternum) to the shoulder blade (scapula). It is easy to feel the clavicle as there are no overlying muscles, just skin. The clavicle is a common site to fracture, especially in the middle third of the… Read more »

Popliteus Muscle Strain

POPLITEUS STRAIN The popliteus is a muscle which is located at the back of the knee. It originates from the outer part of the lower aspect of the femur and inserts on the inner tibia. The action of popliteus is to ‘unlock’ the extended knee by rotating the femur outwards (laterally) on the fixed tibia… Read more »

Synovial Cyst (Baker’s Cyst)

BAKER’S CYST A Baker’s cyst is a benign synovial swelling which was initially named by William Morrant Baker in the 19th Century. There are two types of Baker’s cyst, namely primary and secondary cysts, which are explained below: Located at the back of the knee, between the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle and one… Read more »

Iliotibial Band (ITB) Syndrome

ILIOTIBIAL BAND (ITB) FRICTION SYNDROME   Fascia is a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue which extends uninterrupted from our head to the tips of our toes. It surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels and nerves, binding some structures together, while permitting others to slide smoothly over each other. Various kinds of fascia… Read more »

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Sprain

LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (LCL) SPRAIN The lateral collateral ligaments are located on the outside part of the knee between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The LCL resists various stresses (forces pushing the inside of the knee outwards or forces pushing the lower end of the shin bone and foot inwards). It’s… Read more »


BURSITIS/TENDINITIS There are three muscles which cross the medial (inside) joint line of the knee. These are one of the hamstring muscles (semitendinosus) and two of the long hip adductor muscles (gracilis and sartorius). They insert inside of the shin bone and form what is known as the pes anserinus, due to its resemblance to… Read more »

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Sprain

MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (MCL) STRAIN The medial collateral ligaments are the most common ligaments to be sprained in the knee. They are found in the inside part of the knee between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The MCL works predominantly with the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to resist valgus stress (forces… Read more »

Patella Tendinopathy

Patella Tendinopathy The patella (knee cap) is essentially a floating bone. It transfers the force of the largest and strongest muscle grouping, the quadriceps (front of thigh), into the lower leg. In activities such as jumping, the quadriceps act to straighten the knee to propel the individual off the ground, as well as functioning in… Read more »


MEDIAL SYNOVIAL PLICA IRRITATION A plica is a fold in the lining of the joint (joint capsule). It’s not known why they exist, but they are normal and are considered a remnant embryological structure. There are four in total: medial patella; lateral patella; infrapatella, and suprapatella. The most problematic is the medial patella plica. There… Read more »